Tuesday, February 18, 2020
A year in the South, 1865 - Essay Example CORNELIA MCDONALD: Cornelia McDonald was the widow of a confederate officer and the mother of seven. In the story she is fighting poverty and despair and takes apart a mattress thread by thread to make a suit for one of his sons. For Cornelia the year only presented heartaches and hardships for she was forced to leave her genteel home in Winchester, Virginia for rundown accommodations in Lexington, where Cornelia was compelled to tutor young ladies to make the ends meet, after her hometown was taken over by Union Soldiers. A small patch of vegetable plot and a cow made a huge financial gap between the life with which Cornelia and her children were used to and the life she had to spend. Ã Her friends in town of Lexington, including the wife of General William Pendleton, helped Cornelia survive the difficult winter and spring of 1865. Though she survived the financial hardship borne of war and the loss of her husband, Cornelia's spirits reduced considerably with the termination of th e Confederacy as she sided with Union until the war broke out. But once the war began in earnest she adopted the Confederate cause with zeal. In the spring of 1865, Lexington became an impoverished town hosting a stream of black and white refugees. Cornelia was depressed after watching the rise of the slaves and the downfall of her own children, who now have to do laborious work to survive. In many ways, Cornelia protested against this change but always with much care to avoid any rebuke mainly protesting by her gestures and stares. Her own familyÃ¢â¬â¢s survival kept her busy to take part in any rebellious activities against Yankee soldiers. In summer Cornelia only wished to end her life after an accident of dropping boiling hot water on her foot burning her so badly that she was confined to bed for weeks. Stephen traces the lives of these ordinary southerners during the year of 1865 and his characters come from different racial, religion and class backgrounds and thus the events had a unique impact on all of them. But for some reason Stephen refused to make any connection between these stories, He only portrayed the life of four people in short biographies to depict a picture of change in South throughout the year. LOUIS HUGH: Louis Hugh was 32 years old in the year 1865, a mullato slave born of black mother and a white father, born in Virginia near Charlottesville, in year 1832. At the age of eleven he was sold by his mother to man who further sold him in Richmond from where his life took him to Mississippi, where he was given as a Christmas present to the wife of one of his buyers. Being motherless and friendless he grieved for a long time for his hardships but after a while adapted to the new life. For Louis after facing so many hardships in Mississippi plantation, the year of 1865 was a ray of hope. Hired by his master as a butler, he sold tobacco in his spare time and became talented in many ways. Louise risen himself from a status of slave to a stati on of relative security. Throughout much of the Civil war Lou spend his life as a slave at salt works near AlabamaÃ¢â¬â¢s Tombigbee River, where his wife Matilda was hired as a cook in works. He was a butler, carriage driver, trusted servant, his wife was the family cook, and Hughes made a position for himself but still tried to escape from the war numerous times before the end of the
Monday, February 3, 2020
Technical Definition and Description - Essay Example This informs the person about the processes that occur as a result of binding, leading to the drug effect. A renowned scientist, Paul Ehrlich concluded that drugs cannot work unless they are bound (Berges-Gimeno & Stevenson, 2004). This paper outlines how aspirin works starting with a history of the drug, its administration, benefits and the way it works. This is beneficial to patients. An overview of AspirinÃ¢â¬â¢s history Aspirin is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), and it is also known as a salicylate (Berges-Gimeno & Stevenson, 2004). This drug owes its origin to Luke Hoffman who discovered a powder from the bark of willow plant around the fifth century. Hippocrates commonly referred to as the father of medicine appraised the use of the powder in relieving pain. In the 1700s, Reverend Edmund Stone talked about its success in alleviating pain and fevers. Scientists later discovered that the bitter powder from willow bark contained a chemical called salicin. This che mical is converted into salicylic acid once ingested by a person and is widely used to manufacture aspirin. The drug was registered as the most popular painkiller in the world, in the 1950 Guinness Book of Records. It is widely known as a Ã¢â¬Å"wonder drugÃ¢â¬ because it cures several diseases in the contemporary world (Jeffreys, 2005). Administration of aspirin It is usually administered orally through tablets, but it can also be administered through caplets, capsules, liquid elixir and suppositories. Benefits of Aspirin The following are the benefits of aspirin. It; Relieves mild pain such as muscle cramps, toothaches and headaches Controls fever Manages pain in gout and arthritis Reduces swellings Regulates blood pressure in expectant women Treats cataracts in diabetic patients Prevents some cancers such as breast and bowel cancers Treats gum disease (Vane, 1971) How it works Researchers and medical practitioners have found it difficult explain how aspirin works due to its nu merous effects (Weissmann, 1991). However, in the 1970s, biologists came to a conclusion regarding how aspirin works. The drug inhibits synthesizing of some hormones responsible for causing pain and inflammation in the body. Aspirin has an active ingredient called acetylsalicylic acid. This ingredient inhibits chemical processes such as physiological processes in the body. It inhibits production of body chemicals referred to as prostaglandin and thromboxane, which are potential mediators in inflammation. Aspirin undergoes esterification whereby salicylic acid is mixed with acetic anhydride. This results in a chemical reaction which turns the hydroxyl group in salicylic acid into an ester (R-OH R-OCOCH3). This is followed by action on COX. The figure below shows this process. Prostaglandins are important because; they Aid in regulation of acid production, in the stomach Ensure the stomach lining does not digest itself Transmit pain into the brain Are responsible for inflammation The mediators are produced from arachidonic acid through bis-oxygenation of arachidonate into prostaglandin PGG2. Thereafter, PGG2 is reduced to PGH2 following a peroxidase reaction which is enhanced by cyclooxygenase, also called PTGS synthase. This is a catalyst and enzyme which is crucial in the synthesis of prostaglandin as well as thromboxane. The cyclooxygenase (COX) comprise of two types; COX-1 and COX-2. Aspirin acts as an irreversible inhibitor unlike other NSAIDs like ibuprofen and diclofenac. It plays the
Sunday, January 26, 2020
Human Population Size And Climate Change Environmental Sciences Essay Over the years, human society has changed the local ecological system and caused the change of regional climate. Today, mankind has begun to affect the entire planets climate. The worlds population in the next 12 to 13 years will increase more than 1 billion. It is predicted that by 2020, the population will increase to 76 billion from the current 6.5 billion, in 2030 to 8.2 billion, in 2050 to staggering 9.0 billion. There is a huge gap between population growth and food supply growth. When the population growth exceeds the capacity of the food supply, famine is inevitable. The more people mean needing more air, water, and more housing, education and employment opportunities. To meet these, people will ignore the prevention and treatment of the serious consequences of climate change. But climate change has caused global warming and rising sea levels, which could lead to the destruction of the Earths civilization without any measures. Humanity in the process of production and consump tion make destruction, pollution and impact on the environment, but changed environment also affects the survival of mankind. The relationship between population and the environment has been objective relationship since the origins of mankind. The population development is a special kind of social process, which is mainly determined by economic and social conditions. During a social process, population and environment have the opposite and unity relation of interrelatedness, interaction, and mutual restraint. This essay will first discuss the development of population size and the problem. Following this, it will describe the impact of population on the climate. Finally it will describe impact of climate on the population. Development of population size and the problem Overall, the worlds population growth is relatively fast. The second half of the 20th century, the world had an unprecedented rapid population growth. Not only the population growth rate reached a historic peak level and increment of the population exceeded the total accumulation population in more than 200 million years of human history. U.S. Census Bureau data showed that the worlds population in 1930 reached 20 billion, in 1974 to 40 million, in 1987 to 50 million, in 1999 to reach 6.0 billion. The population growth rate has been accelerating in the 20th century. The worlds population had doubled in 1850-1950 years, while in 1950-1990 a short period of four decades had doubled. At present, in the world about 365,000 people born every day, of which 57% born in Asia, 26% in Africa, 9% in Latin America, 5% in Europe, but was born in North America and only 3%. In addition, less than 1% of the population is born in Oceania and the oceanic islands. After subtracting the number of deaths , the global average daily increase is nearly 21 million people. The Earth increases by nearly 80 million people each year, almost equivalent to a large population country. India is one of the worlds youngest population countries, more than half of the national smaller than 25 years of age, 1/3 of the population smaller than 15 years(Ehrlich, 1997).. World Population Prospects published by United Nations predicts that by 2050, Indias population will increase to 1.593 billion In this century many scientific observations indicate that concentrations of greenhouse gases in atmospheric are increasing. Prior to 1750, atmospheric carbon dioxide levels remained at 280ppm. After the industrial revolution, as human activities, especially the growing consumption of fossil fuels (coal, oil, etc.), massive destruction of forest vegetation and the growing man-made emissions of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, atmospheric carbon dioxide level gradually increases, per year increasing 1.8ppm (about 0.4%), and it has risen to nearly 360ppm so far. In the past century, global average surface temperature has risen by 0.3 Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢ to 0.6 Ã ¢Ã ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¾Ãâ Ã¢â¬â¢, the global sea level rise of 10-25 cm (EPA, 2006). Recent years, countries around the world have emerged the hottest weather over centuries, and the frequent occurrence of El NiÃÆ'Ã ±o phenomenon, which have caused tremendous economic losses. With the reduction in per cap ita grain area, more and more countries bear the risk of loss of food self-sufficiency. The extension of water scarcity is perhaps the most undervalued resource problems in the contemporary world. However, in any areas where the population is still growing, per capita fresh water supply is decreasing. Impact of population on the climate In the human production and life, over-grazing, deforestation makes the soil erosion, land degradation; super-exploitation of resources has led to depletion of a lot of natural resources; a variety of waste emissions cause serious environmental pollution and damage, which cause a series of global environmental issues. Population size, distribution, migration have also a huge impact on regional ecological environment. At present, the environmental changes caused by the rapid population growth and rapid development of urbanization have begun to affect the global biogeochemical cycles and long-term climate change, and become an important eco-driving force for large-scale changes in the environment and population. 1). According to UN information, per capita cultivated land was 0.31 hectares in 1975, and in 2000 it drop to 0.1 hectares due to population growth. In the condition of huge population and the relative decrease in the arable land, raising yield per unit area is a positive way to increase the grain. It relies mainly on chemical fertilizers and pesticides to reach the aim. However, large-scale use of fertilizers and pesticides has brought serious environmental problems such as soil compaction, poor physical and chemical properties, organic matter reduction and the fertility decline. 2). Forest is an important factor to maintain the quality of the environment for human survival. However, population growth is bound to destroy forest for cultivated land, or to build a house. As a result, an increasing number of forest resources are destroyed. Forest area on the planet had reached 76 million hectares, in 1962 reducing to 55 million hectares, in 1975 reducing to 26 million hectares. Accordi ng to the calculation of American scholar, with the population growth, depletion of forests will be extended to the year 2020. Then forest area will stabilize at 1.8 billion hectares, of which about 1.45 billion hectares are in developed countries, only 370 million hectares in developing countries. Because the forests are heavily exploited, topsoil on the earth being that are washed away are 24 billion tons every year, loss of several million tons of fertilizer, having a great bad impact on farmers and livestock production. 3). Rapid growth and high concentration of population have brought tremendous pressure on the environment. Environmental pollution is one of the most serious mankind facing problems, such as: air pollution, water pollution, traffic congestion, noise nuisance, accumulation of garbage and so on. Population growth will increase carbon dioxide, nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides in the atmosphere due to respiration, combustion and industrial development, which may cau se acid rain and photochemical smog events. More serious is to cause the earths average temperature increase to affect climate due to the greenhouse effect caused by the increase in carbon dioxide, resulting in serious damage to the planets ecosystems (Smith, 2008). Impact of climate on the population Population distribution, migration and the quantity and quality depend on certain region environmental conditions to a considerable extent. Therefore, the relationship between population and the environment have obvious regional characteristics because of the different regional conditions. Integrated resource supply capacity of environment plays an important role in population distribution and migration. Quantity and quality of the population are affected by natural and social environment, the dual constraints. Population is the unity of its quantity characteristics and quality characteristics. Population quantity and population characteristics and physical appearance are all severely constrained by the environment. The demographic impacts of climate change on population are mainly in the following aspects. 1) Population growth makes a pressure on water supply and demand pressure, even without considering the impact of climate change, by 2050 there will also be 5 billion people facing water shortage situation, more than half of the worlds population. Impact of climate change makes the water problem even worse. Rivers dried up and falling water table are regarded as evidence of shortage of water resources, such as the Nile, the Yellow River and the Colorado River, which almost have waterless flowing to sea. At present, the world water tables of major grain-producing areas are falling on every continent. The U.S. southern Great Plains, the North China Plain and in most parts of India, groundwater aquifers are becoming increasingly dried up. International Water Management Institute predicts that in 2050 year in some countries a total of about 1 billion people live will face absolute water scarcity situation. These countries will reduce agricultural water to meet the needs of residents and industrial water demand. China and India are considered the worlds two major agricultural irrigation countries, and will have a significant reduction in irrigation water supply (Leigh, 2007). 2) Extreme weather and sea level rise have the most serious effect on the coastal and low-elevation areas, and coastal areas accounting for 2% of the total land live on 10% of the population around the world. Take Bangladesh and China for example, in 1990 to-2000 years, population growth rate living in coastal areas is twice the national rate of population growth. In the negative effects of sea-level rise and extreme weather, number of living people is growing. Others such as landslides, flash floods and glacial lake overflow and other issues also have impact on the human. It is expected 40% of the worlds population will be affected by the Asian mountain glaciers and snow melting. 3) The agricultural productivity reduces. Tropical and subtropical agriculture are most affected, because the regio ns crop is already under the extreme climate varieties. As the population growth, reduced crop output and increasingly higher food prices, to 2080, will cause 90000000-125000000 population in developing countries facing the problem of hunger. 4) The global climate change often leads to severe changes of regional climate and weather, which have wide-ranging implications on human health. Global climate warming causes more heat in summer and temperate in winter, which is accompanied by an increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves. Humidity increase aggravates the effect of extreme heat in summer on human health. In temperate regions, high temperature increases the number of deaths during the day to day. For example, the United States during the heat wave in Chicago in 1995, the death was over 500, of which the highest mortality is at older ages. The future, as increase in frequency and intensity of heat waves, deaths number and serious illnesses caused by extreme high temperatu re events will increase. Also, because of air pollution, during the heat wave in 1995, the United States, it was estimated that more than half the number of deaths was caused by increased air pollution (Jonathan A. Patz, 2005). Flood causes casualties and infectious diseases to increase (P. Martens, 1999). Drought affects food production, and exacerbates the existing situation of malnutrition, inducing famine to affect human health. During the drought and water shortages, the water only is used for cooking but not for health, so that it increases the risk of disease and epidemic disease outbreaks. Conclusion Sir Nicholas Stern in 2006, in Stern Report pointed out that climate change could trigger the worst ever and the most extensive market failure. He warned that the world must invest one per cent of gross domestic product to slow the effects of climate change, the cost of failure to do so is the economic downturn of up to 20 percent of being the worlds gross domestic product. Climate change is a serious challenge to the whole world, and has an extensive impact on human well-being and safety. According to IPCC estimation, by 2050, due to coastal flooding, shoreline erosion and agricultural pollution and other reasons, there will be 150 million refugees. Investment in family planning and reproductive health, girl education, women empowerment and economic opportunities and youth development can accelerate demographic transition in the least developed countries and developing countries, so that they can seize the demographic dividend, to achieve economic growth, while to enhance the abilit y to address climate change. In strategies of adaptation to climate change, demographic factors should not continue to be ignored. It is necessary to take effective measures to meet the worlds most vulnerable populations, including womens needs. Universal population policy of voluntary contraception, comprehensive consideration of population dynamics and development of poverty reduction will ultimately achieve sustainable population development adapting to climate change.
Saturday, January 18, 2020
Sigmund Freud; Probably the most influential activist in the realm of the study of the mind, Psychology; An influence so great that his works, ideologies and theories alike have imposed themselves upon the minds of many in this, the twentieth century, regardless of our acceptance or futile resistance. He was responsible for the articulation of theories and concepts of which everyday individuals do not even know he is the originator of. Ideologies such as the Unconscious, the relevance Sexual and Aggressive Drives under which Infantile Sexuality falls, and the Ã¢â¬Å"tri-partiteÃ¢â¬ mind frame, consisting of the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. Since then, there are multiple manifestations of psychoanalysis in a variety of fields which may be traced directly back to Freud's Original work. Sigmund Freud was born on May 6th, 1856, in Freiberg, Austria (although it is disputed that he may have been born on March 6th instead). He was the first of eight children born to his mother. At age four, Freud and his family moved to Vienna, where he would live and work until he died. His impact and mark would remain there forever, as he was renown for founding the first Viennese school of psychoanalysis from which all aspects and development in this field then flowed. Freud's interest and professional training and experience were very broad. Although he was not particularly interested in becoming a physician, Freud saw medicine as a vehicle for engaging in scientific research. After being enrolled at the University of Vienna for eight years (from 1873), Freud graduated and was then engaged in 1882 later to be married in 1886. Many of his theories were based on clinical material documented while he operated a private practice to treat psychological disorders. Two individuals who played a significant role in his life were Jean Charcot and Josef Breuer. Charcot was a French neurologist who used hypnotism to treat psychologically ill patients. Freud attempted Charcot's methods but were unsuccessful. Breuer was an older Viennese colleague whose methods for treating neuroses, though unique, caught the interest of Freud. Breuer discovered that when he encouraged patients to talk freely without restrictions that he was able to get to the source of the problem causing the symptoms. Freud worked with Breuer and developed the idea that the source of a patient's problems was some hidden or unresolved conflict which occurred in their past life, and the Ã¢â¬Å"cureÃ¢â¬ was achieved by bringing that conflict to the client's Ã¢â¬Å"consciousnessÃ¢â¬ in a manner in which he/she might intellectually and emotionally confront it. At the turn of the 20th Century, Freud, after a period of self-analysis, published works such as; Ã¢â¬Å"The Interpretation of DreamsÃ¢â¬ (1900), Ã¢â¬Å"The Psychopathology of Everyday LifeÃ¢â¬ (1901), Three essays on the Theory of sexuality (1905) and Ã¢â¬Å"Five Lectures on Psycho-AnalysisÃ¢â¬ (1916). Freud's theories on Sexuality received the most resistance and caused many of his partnerships with other philosophers to deteriorate. The final and yet not any less significant of his works was his model of the mind, consisting of the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. After a life of remarkable vigour and creative productivity, he died of cancer while exiled in England in 1939. It is interesting to note that although he carried out many self-analytic tests, that he was unable to resolve his addiction to cigarette smoking; the very habit that eventually killed him. Although Freud was an original thinker, there were still influences which shaped the development of his thought. For instance, his relationship with Charcot and Breuer definitely impacted upon his thoughts but rather differently, Freud's self-analysis was probably the greatest impact of all on his life. In this period, several repulsive and yet real facts about Freud character and past were revealed to him. These Ã¢â¬Å"truthsÃ¢â¬ were related to his emotions towards members of his family in the aspects of sexuality and hatred and the results thereof. This was to become the basis of his theory of the Oedipus complex. The Scientific climate in which Freud existed in also had great influence on his thought. For instance, Charles Darwin's perception of man, was a life shaking event for people of that time, now making it possible to treat humans as objects of Scientific investigation. Freud with his enormous esteem for science, accepted this implicitly. Another important aspect of Science that impacted on his thoughts was the principle of the conservation of energy Ã¢â¬â Helmholz stating that energy can neither be created or destroyed but only change in form. Freud then concluded that in parallel with this principle, humans consisted of psychic energy. Repression and Suppression are two examples of how Freud believed that this Psychic energy may be represented. Freud's works and ideas are vast, but among these there are some which the basis of many of his theories are grounded. This is based on Freud's idea that all human actions are a manifestation or a representation of some hidden desire or impulse. Events become conscious when Ã¢â¬Å"unconsciousÃ¢â¬ matter arises into a level of awareness for an individual and then may sink into a state of unconsciousness again. This theory follows that whenever we make a decision, we are governed by a hidden mental process of which we are unaware and have no control. The question arises therefore, do people truly have free will? Freud deeply associated the unconscious with instincts and drives, categorizing those drives into Eros (the life instinct) and Thanatos (the death instinct). Sexuality (any pleasure which can be derived out of the body) is derived out of Eros while Thanatos is the opposite, the urge to destroy any source of sexuality. Freud determined that through satisfaction, or lack thereof, of sexual satisfaction through childhood stages, the individual would develop into a correspondingly appropriate adult. These stages are; Ã¢â¬Å"The Oral StageÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â satisfaction from sucking, Ã¢â¬Å"The Anal StageÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â satisfaction from releasing excrete or urine, Ã¢â¬Å"The Phallic StageÃ¢â¬ - interest in genital region (Oedipus Complex may also develop here Ã¢â¬â hatred of a parent of the same sex), Ã¢â¬Å"LatencyÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬â less pronounced sexual motivation and Ã¢â¬Å"The Genital stageÃ¢â¬ - genital region becomes focus of stimulation and satisfaction. Freud believed that (in)appropriate treatment is responsible for forming the resulting image of the individual's character and personality. Freud distinguished three structural elements which framed the mind. They are the Id, Ego and Super-Ego. The Id represents the instinctual sexual drives which acquire satisfaction. The Super-Ego represents the conscience which restricts us from satisfying the desires of the Id. The Super-Ego however is shaped by social influence, such as parents. The Ego is the Ã¢â¬Å"consciousÃ¢â¬ self-created as a balance between the ever struggling fight between the Id and Super-Ego for dominance. The Id and Super-Ego reside in the unconscious. Failure of the Id and Super-Ego to resolve conflict may later form neurosis resulting in the activation of Ã¢â¬Å"defense mechanismsÃ¢â¬ such as repression, sublimation, fixation and regression. The main purpose of this treatment was to bring harmony within the frame or structure of the human mind by resolving Ã¢â¬Å"unconscious repressed & unresolved conflictsÃ¢â¬ . Freud allowed clients to lay on a sofa and encouraged them to express themselves freely (through Ã¢â¬Å"free associationÃ¢â¬ ), hence to some degree disarming the Super-Ego. By analyzing slips of the tongue dreams and other means of expression Freud believed that one can discern the underlying/unconscious forces lying behind the expression. The next step was to bring the client to a point of self-understanding and assist them in dealing with their past and find a way curing themselves of some neuroses by suppressing it. Of this, I would now like to make special points in conclusion to all the materials which I have researched. Firstly, can these theories be proven to be strongly coherent? This issue has been one of great controversy but the truth is, there is no direct significant or proving link of any of Freud theories other than the Ã¢â¬Å"variableÃ¢â¬ behaviour patterns of individuals of which any other theories may be attributed. For instance, in science where a cause Ã¢â¬ËY' is unobservable (radio waves) there are still clear corresponding rules connecting the unobservable cause to an observable phenomenon. However, this is not the case with Freud's theories, and in truth the theories are exactly what I earlier declared them as, Ideologies, having absolutely no factual evidence to support them. More importantly however, is the impact of his ideologies on the world today. As Psychoanalytic therapy is in use today, the use of free association and revealing repressed conflicts for intellectual assistance and management seems to be further detrimental to certain relationships in the United States instead of positively influential. Many people have recovered memories of sexual abuse by parents and others which were actually untrue and were some form of a fantasy. Children and adults alike have sued their parents and the parents in turn sued their children and the conflicts continue to develop. Even when patients are Ã¢â¬Å"cured successfullyÃ¢â¬ , statistics prove that these methods of therapy do not outperform other methods. So then is it really that efficient? Doesn't it seem fair also to say that their cure is non-existent and that they can only direct that Psychic energy to a different form? Why also is not possible for that form of energy to be reverted to it's previous state? It then appears that even if this form of therapy was plausible, it really cannot be proven to be steadfast or efficient. Regardless however, one cannot deny Freud's innovative and creative perceptions and thoughts and should in fact seek to see how we can abstract good and gain a greater understanding of behaviour; not only of others but most importantly, ourselves.
Friday, January 10, 2020
Introduction China as a civilization is one of the oldest that has lived in the face of the earth, through out history they can pride themselves with abundance of technological and sociological breakthrough that are ahead from the rest of the civilization in the ancient times. As its best China was the most prosperous and highly intellectual civilization especially during the Tang Dynasty, which were synonymous with the golden era of ancient Chinese history. Nowadays, as a citizen in this modern civilization we can never hide away from the impact of china in the global economy, based on a personal point of view the superpower of China today has always maintain the same philosophy, culture and tradition as they have always have which could that back the most ancient of times, none more apparent than the language that has been honed and maintain to this day, and also business culture that has always been distinct from the rest of the world. The China of today root back to the beginning of their civilization, therefore the history of China business is a subject that should be keenly approach as the basis of understanding the China of today. In this particular paper we will focus on the root of Chinese business philosophy that branch from Confucianism, we will discuss how Confucianism came to influence the everyday business culture in china lay foundation to the modern Chinese society, from this objective we will then discuss Confucian ideology on harmony, hierarchy, collectivism and reciprocity within his philosophy. The principles makes up the differences of how Chinese approach business, we can take an analogy of how Chinese pervasiveness in saying Ã¢â¬ËnoÃ¢â¬â¢ in which Westerners are likely to find it different the way how things come about, but it roots back to Confucius teaching of humanity and etiquettes which consider the embarrassment and potential awkwardness such situations may create and do not want to make others feel ashamed or rejected. In this paper we will research the parameters of the philosophy and how it came to be to further convey the understanding of Chinese business culture. Outline Confucianism is something that embodied China, it is everywhere and it stick to every aspect of a Chinese person daily life, therefore to search on this topic of how to understand what role does Confucianism have in influencing the Chinese Business culture it is to be more aware of what is the philosophy is all about. Firstly we learn the basic of this philosophy, which are the principles that Confucius has laid and preached. These information are attainable through books, websites in the internet, databases, journals and personal observation that are carried out during the whole process of the making of this paper. Once we get the basic understanding of Confucianism, we will then try to see how it fits into the Chinese business culture in the past. Literature review. The first and foremost literature we will review is the textbook Ã¢â¬ËAn introduction to Chinese Business cultureÃ¢â¬â¢ by Xu Huifen, which is the preferred text for the course. The text will be use as the basis of understanding the background and teaching of Confucius, the book provide a good information to help understand the basic philosophy of Confucius and also relate them to other lateral disciples of his teaching such as Mencius and Xun Zi. In addition we will use the text to gain more understanding of the relation of ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings and his follower in relations to economic thoughts and business culture. Although there a concise amount of knowledge and information on this text we it lacks literal view on the actual business culture and examples on how the philosophy is being practiced, therefore in this particular issue we will try to use other sources. The second source will be the different article and point of views that taken from the Internet. One of the sources that are selected is a presentation titled Ã¢â¬ËEast meet West: Understanding Cultural Differences when Doing Business in ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢ by Dr. Eugene Chang. This source will be use as a guideline to common Chinese business practice and culture, to get us more accustomed to the reality side of the study, and from it we will find connection to Confucianism from the business practice and culture in China. The third source is an academic paper titled The Influence of Confucianism and Buddhism on Chinese Business: the Case of Aveiro, Portugal by Tianbo Li and Gillian Owen Moreira of the University of Aveiro, Portugal. The text gives us great insight to China business today, with data from questionnaires and how Confucianism exists in the world today. the source will be useful affirm hypothesis with real data and also provide knowledge on the Confucianism that is being practice today. Through out the paper we will use several other references and literature that are not as significant as the above texts, these sources and references will further aid our paper. Argument: How does Confucius teaching reflect on ancient Chinese business culture and practice and today Chinese business Culture and practices? History Commerce and trade has always been part of the social system in China for as long as we can remember, and as we know back in the ancient times, businessman are not as highly regarded during the ancient times when compared to today, as in the ancient times commercial success had never won the respect of the society and Scholars, farmers and artisans was ahead in the social rank based on Confucian scheme of social stratification (xu,2007) . But still, it doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deter businessmen during that time from being wealthy and rich, Chinese businessmen has a long history of being smart, strategic, and agile thinker, which makes them as we can still aware today that they are great businessmen. The beginning of Commercial prominent with the merchant groups that started in Shanxi, Anhui and Zhejiang and Guangdong province, as the former two take advantage of the strategic location in which they were in that became eventually the hub for trading between the north and south part of the country. But the good times for commerce as for other old Chinese tradition were negatively affected when the monarchy came to an end. But the latter two merchants (Zhejiang and Guangdong) has different approach to the trend of decline mainly helped by the strong international influenced and investment put towards coastal and southern cities of Guangzhou and shanghai that resulted with the trade network for these merchant that expand to the western region bring prosperous times for these merchants as well. As two merchant groups fell out of their luck the other face a different fate and from then we came to know that the ancestral root of ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s modern merchant were the Zhejiang and Guangdong merchants. Business culture in the ancient times for china as mention earlier were divided by four merchant groups that were originated from four different areas, we come to know that Shanxi and Anhui merchant were a more traditional merchant groups, due to ancient China emphasis on political influence more than economical benefits these two merchant groups become the more prominent merchant groups compared to the others due to their close relations with the government therefore ensuring their prosperity with favorable policy by the government to them, and for a long time this has become a huge part of the traditional business model in China until the monarchy ended, which turn its favor to a more to the more independent merchant of Zhejiang and Guangdong merchants. As these two merchants lay the foundation for the modern Chinese business culture we will explore more the how the teaching of Confucius influenced them. Confucius concept in Business Confucius may not rank businessman in in high society rank, but there is no doubt that his teaching influence the many generation of businessmen up until today. There are many ways in which Confucianism affected how Chinese approach business practice. We start with ideology which we must first understand that Confucian theory work on three principles which were Ã¢â¬ËrenÃ¢â¬â¢ (humility), Ã¢â¬ËyiÃ¢â¬â¢ (collectivism) and Ã¢â¬ËliÃ¢â¬â¢(etiquette), these three concepts run like the blood though the vein within ConfuciusÃ¢â¬â¢ teachings. We can learn from the littlest action to the biggest and most controversial business practice can leads its way to Confucius teachings, but it is still by no means that Confucianism is in every business practice. Within Confucius teachings of harmony are taken and instill into business culture in the same way that he believes that society need to maintain harmonious relationship within each other, and also it can apply in finding the correct balance in ethics versus profits. To achieve these harmony there are always ways in which Ã¢â¬ËrenÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËliÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËyiÃ¢â¬â¢ is incorporated and be use as the doctrine to act upon, in ways that Ã¢â¬ËrenÃ¢â¬â¢ which were filled with kind heartedness, benevolence and goodness, act upon to bring restraint on bad motives to gain profits in ways such as cheating, corrupting and manipulation. As for Ã¢â¬ËliÃ¢â¬â¢, which brings order, rituals, and hierarchal importance, it is definitely a prominent source to the reason for Chinese importance of politeness, and hierarchical relationship is more importantly emphasized than anywhere else in the world. And lastly Ã¢â¬ËyiÃ¢â¬â¢ which requires the promotion of collectivism to achieve social stability, we can definitely notice this in the way Chinese consider a proposal from a wider point of view, which consider the impact as a whole. Action influence by Ã¢â¬ËyiÃ¢â¬â¢ sometimes does not easily received in the West where individualism is more prominent (secondchina. com, 2012). When all Ã¢â¬ËrenÃ¢â¬â¢,Ã¢â¬â¢liÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËyiÃ¢â¬â¢ were achieve harmony within the system will be achieved. Second important concept that Confucius based his teachings on is the hierarchical relationships. Within China generally all tend to center around politeness and respect for the dominant figure in the relationship. Confucius specified the relationship of ruler-subject, husband-wife, parent-child, the elder-younger brother, and the friend-friend relationship. Within this concept we feature Ã¢â¬ËliÃ¢â¬â¢ as the dominant doctrine as it is the source of order, and hierarchical concept aim to achieve order, to apply this concept within the business practice in china, we can see that through the hierarchical status within the the management of a business, or even the relationship within the government and the people. Unlike the more egalitarian approach of the western society, where you can find managers try to break the formalization of ranks by asking a subordinates to call them by the first name, within china this situation will be hard to come by, as this teaching has been invested so deep into Chinese culture. In other example where hierarchical system is important for Chinese is that, we might notice Chinese businessmen reluctant or offended when a more lower rank personnel is assign to handle his matter, and also within a family business which were very common in China, the elder son might take over the management of the company while the father have less responsibility, but when it comes to any important decision it is likely that the son will console the father to make final say. Third concept is Collectivism, which is the power of group over individualism as mention above collectivism is also Ã¢â¬ËyiÃ¢â¬â¢ which states that social stability, in part, depends upon the co-dependence and focus on the family unit. Collectivism is inherent in a Confucian society. In order for Chinese society to operate smoothly, it was necessary to subject oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own desires to the greater good of the group. In other words, people didnÃ¢â¬â¢t exist independently of one another. Instead, an individual was defined by his or her relationship to the group (Chang, 2011). In a business environment especially in the modern times, this is apparent in how there are more emphasis being put to the group performances when it comes to projects within the company and While the opinions of elders have great influence, decisions are often made collectively and reached through a consensus. Lastly there is reciprocity, which is in general definition the practice of exchanging benefits or things. It is in fact something in most western country known as the term Ã¢â¬Ëthe golden ruleÃ¢â¬â¢ which is to do unto other, as you would want to be done to you. Within the Chinese business culture, it is to always act with respect toward each other, may it be to a subordinates or superior. This last concept in a way balances collectivism and hierarchical concept, with which it provides boundaries that a businessman should conduct themselves, with reciprocity businessmen is preach to always have respect towards everyone whether your in a position of power or not. Confucius in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world Now that we have connected in some dots that connect Confucianism from the realm of philosophy and politics to the business culture that still persist today, we will now try to further understand on how important is Confucianism in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world and especially the business world. As we know China has grown rapidly over the past 30 years and it has establish itself as the factory of the world and its just a matter of time until it stake claim to be the largest economy in the world. But among this highlights we also can see from the whatÃ¢â¬â¢s happening with this growth that Chinese businessmen were again on the raise, not since the cultural revolution that halted the economy so much and causing many businessman to flee to country outside of China has businessmen of China has this much claim their respected status of being great businessman. It is comebacks that may have been predicted since the opening of china to the world, a philosophy that during the Mao Zedong Cultural Revolution the philosophy was believe to be the main culprit for China not moving forward. But, it is an underestimation that a philosophy that was created in china and for what it seems a eternity that the basis of Chinese culture surround upon this philosophy, to be replaced by another philosophy of an alien kind. Nowadays Confucianism is everywhere, and it seems the nations supports and feels the needs to rekindle their old philosophy, with books, films, and study programs within the China education system on Confucianism, but the most intriguing aspect of the manifestation is its recent adoption by the communist party. As an article from the economist explains since becoming ChinaÃ¢â¬â¢s top leader in 2002, President Hu Jintao has promoted such slogans, which include Ã¢â¬Å"Harmonious SocietyÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"Xiaokang ShehuiÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"a moderately well off societyÃ¢â¬ ) which possessed hints of the philosophy of Confucianism. (economists, 2007) Taken from source on the study of the Ã¢â¬Ëinfluences and Buddhism and Confucianism on Chinese businessÃ¢â¬â¢ by Li Tianbo and Gillian Owen Moreira, it is revealed on the importance of Confucianism philosophy are for Businessmen of china considered guanxi which are Ã¢â¬ËconnectionsÃ¢â¬â¢ as an important part of business in china, along with other Confucius teaching of harmony, politeness etc. in their studies Li and Moreira set out a questionnaires to 550 to 59 different company to each of their personnel and received 288 valid questionnaires back, their result are indicative to Confucianism in Chinese business culture with, as the result show when asked about cultural values considered important, Ã¢â¬Å"68. 7% of the respondents selected interpersonal harmony, 62. 6% considered trust, 50. 8% included collectivism, and 46. 5% chose guanxi ( ), followed by endurance, social status, thrift, face and others. These results demonstrate how much importance is attributed to the role of interpersonal harmony, trust, collectivism and guanxi ( ) in successful business in China. Ã¢â¬ (Li and Moreira, 2007). The study from Li Moreira goes beyond just how Confucianism is perceived today but also how it works in managing a company and its contribution to the Chinese business culture, with many acknowledging its presence, and ready made ideology, that can fit in any business day to day runningÃ¢â¬â¢s. Conclusions Based on the process of understanding the background of Confucius teachings and the application it has on the business culture in china through out the civilization our argument of how Confucius teaching reflect on ancient Chinese business culture and practice and today Chinese business Culture and practices can be conclude that Confucianism does have a significant impact on the business culture in china, and how businessmen of China mold their thoughts, from simple transactions, managements and ethical view of the company. For me the whole idea of Confucianism is something that has been invested for too long within the Chinese culture that it makes what Chinese people, not just the Mainland Chinese people but also any nationalities with Chinese origins who they are. Even during the times of cultural change something that defines a race cannot be change. The modesty, hierarchical thinking and collectivism is something that cannot be taken away, and for me personally, being a person of Indonesian nationalities with Chinese origin it something that you grown up with, albeit I never actually thought specifically what it was, but it felt like it is our identity to act upon Confucianism idea. Having experience a fair share working and understanding with people of two different mindset of both western and Chinese, I notice many differences in approaches that they go about when they do business. I can confirm based on personal experience from the above statement that Guangxi is the most important philosophy ahead of harmony within chinese businessmen, having experience first hand of how connection can get you further ahead than the rest in business but also for western culture I experience and witness how individualism is promoted, having seen this in many western fast food chain where employee of the month award was given and etc. In conclusion, Confucianism I believe was, is and will be everywhere in Chinese business culture, the nature of Chinese culture that support and accepted it are always going to be there as it is a philosophy that has become the norm within everyday life in China. as the future tilt closer to favor China as the world biggest economy it will only be the matter of time when Confucianism business culture spread and no longer be seen as a culture shock by the western civilizations. References Economist, Ã¢â¬ËIdeology in China Confucius makes a comebackÃ¢â¬â¢, Beijing, May 2007, Ã¢â¬Ëhttp://www. economist. com. hk/node/9202957Ã¢â¬â¢ Chang, E. , Ã¢â¬ËEast Meets West:understanding cultural differences when doing business in chinaÃ¢â¬â¢, April 20th ,2011, MeteringChina. com Li and Moreira, Ã¢â¬ËThe Influence of Confucianism and Buddhism on Chinese Business: the Case of Aveiro, PortugalÃ¢â¬â¢, university of Aveiro, Portugal, 2007, Ã¢â¬Ëhttp://www. immi. se/intercultural/nr19/tianbo. htmÃ¢â¬â¢ University of Florida, Ã¢â¬ËCHINESE BUSINESS CULTURE? Confucian Business Ethics Ã¢â¬â GeneralÃ¢â¬â¢, 2009, Ã¢â¬Ëhttp://secondchina. com/Learning_Modules/BUS_web/content/BUS_confucian_ethics. htmlÃ¢â¬â¢ Xu , Ã¢â¬ËAn introduction to Chinese Business cultureÃ¢â¬â¢, 2007, Jinan University Press.
Thursday, January 2, 2020
It is only appropriate to believe that the severity of penalties given to an individual whom committed a crime should be proportionate to the crime in which they engaged in, no more than what is necessary, but enough in order to deter the offender from participating in another crime. This approach is applied in such ways because it is believed that criminal activity is a rational choice, chosen because they perceive it to be in their best interest. Ã¢â¬Å"Criminals make a rational choice and choose to do criminal acts due to maximum pleasure and minimum painÃ¢â¬ (Classical School of Criminology, 2012) Cesare Beccaria contributed to the classical theory greatly, and introduced several attributions to the justice system which advanced it immensely. Ã¢â¬Å"Views were consistent with BeccariaÃ¢â¬â¢s utilitarian beliefs that sought to maximize the public benefit by achieving the greatest amount of good for the most peopleÃ¢â¬ . (Newman, Freilich 133 1997; Newman Margongiu, 1997) T he Classical Theory has resulted in positive advancements in the justice system for various reasons. Firstly, it is Ã¢â¬Å"forward-looking utilitarian models designed to promote the public goodÃ¢â¬ (Freilich, J., 2014, 138), also, it Ã¢â¬Å"embraces scientific principles to achieve their goals and seek to temper harsh punishments of their timesÃ¢â¬ (Freilich, J., 2014, 138). These are beneficial for the justice system because communities independently choose the crime reduction strategy which they are comfortable with, and believe willShow MoreRelatedThe Classical School Of Thought889 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesAs early as the 18th century, theorists have hypothesized the reasons behind criminal behavior. 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Some claim that some people have hiddenRead MoreInsight Into Criminal Behavior Essay1735 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesÃ¢â¬Æ' Juvenile exposure to criminal behavior increases the chances that those individuals will also engage in criminal behavior. Research gives us insight to prevent or reduce criminality and rehabilitate violators of the law that engage in criminal behavior. What causes people to commit crimes? Interdisciplinary criminology gives us a better understanding from several fields of study of a better understanding of crime. Influential factors that influence criminal behaviors are psychological, sociologicalRead MoreThe Classical School Of Criminology935 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesmajor principles of the Classical School of Criminology? The major principles in the Classical School of Criminology are that humans are rational and that our behavior comes from free will, and our human behavior is derived from pain and pleasure. 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Wednesday, December 25, 2019
Per your request, I have researched some psychological factors in criminal investigation that could have played a role in Mr. BloodsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s conviction. The areas that I have chosen to focus on are confirmation bias, the two young boys as witnesses, and criminal profiling. In this memo, I will identify the major problems in police work and eyewitness identification that were present in Mr. BloodsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s case by using and describing the psychological theories and research findings from the Psychology and Law course I took. Summary of the Case In Rosedale, Maryland Dawn Hamilton, a nine-year girl, was found dead in a wooded area, having been beaten and sexually assaulted. Mr. Bloodsworth was arrested for the crime after identification by a witness from a police sketch made public on television and an anonymous caller told police hotline he recalled seeing him with the victim that day. At trial, five witnesses testified that they had had seen Mr. Bloodsworth with the victim; however, two of those witnesses were unable to identify Mr. Bloodsworth in a lineup. Although there was no physical evidence connecting our client to the crime, he was convicted and sentenced to death row. Mr. Bloodsworth has maintained his innocence throughout his trial and continues to maintain it. Psychology Analysis Wrongful witness identification was a major component of Mr. BloodsworthÃ¢â¬â¢s wrongful conviction. Witness accounts of the offender suggested that he was well over 6 feet tall had curlyShow MoreRelatedEssay on Problems with Eyewitness Testimony1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesEyewitness testimony has been used for many centuries and continues to be a part of our criminal justice system. Although, there has been many controversy debates on whether to allow the continuation of these testimonies in court, and allow it to be used as evidence. 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Now every thought that runs through your mind is consumed with your desire for revenge. You want nothing more than to catch the person that has taken someone so precious from you; to make them suffer as you have. Police ask you to come in for questioning. You want to help them do their job and find the perpetrator. You have no idea that the real reason they asked you to come in is because you are their main suspect. They believe you did it. They think that youRead MoreWrongful Convictions And Its Effect On Society6680 Words Ã |Ã 27 Pagesexoneration rates have increased. Ã¢â¬Å"There are many factors involved when consider the causes of wrongful convictions. Eyewitness misidentification is a leading cause for wrongful convictions.Ã¢â¬ (Innocence Project, n.d.) Other leading causes in wrongful convictions include improper forensics, false confessions, informants, and bad lawyering. Ã¢â¬Å"The authors argue that traditional sources of error (eyewitness misidentification, false confessions, perjured testimony, forensic error, tunnel vision, prosecutorial misconduct